Thursday, 30 August 2012

Miklós Horthy in English



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Miklós Horthy  edit introduction ]



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Brave Baia Mare Miklós Horthy ( Kenderes , 1868 . Jun. 18 - Estoril , Portugal , 1957 . February 9 ) in the Austro-Hungarian Navy navy officer1909 - 1914 of Francis Joseph 's aide, as admiral of the fleet was the last commander in chief. The ruler of the end of World War altengernaggyá promoted. The First World War, after the dictatorship of the proletariat, after the collapse of the state consolidated its power. 1,920 . 1 March1944 . Oct. 16 until he was in the Kingdom of Hungary governor. Portuguese emigration, died in 1957. 1993 . September 4, re-buried Kenderes .

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Origin, family edit ]

Horthy's parents, Paula and István Horthy Halassy
The family ancestor, Horton Stephen in 1635 he received a diploma of nobility II. Ferdinand king. This time in the North-East Hungary living in Transylvania origin, family name, however, much earlier, in the 16th century, is mentioned at the end of Debrecen city Protocols. Their role, however, was not significant, since their names are not recorded in addition to other information about them. The domestication of Cluj County took place in 1657 . , on 21 June . [1]
Nicholas's father, István Horthy ( in 1830 - 1 904 ), [2] , the Hungarian Upper House member, a 1,500-acre farm's owner, a very strong man - even their own children with too. 1,857 was married Dévaványa Halassy Paula ( 1839 - 1895 ). [ 2] [3] Nine children: Stephen, Z., Scott, Paula, Nicholas, Elizabeth, Szabolcs, Eugene (two years, when he died), and Eugene. [4] Horthy's brothers were Stephen ( 1858 - 1937 ) cavalry generals served as the First World War and a number of high honors. Miklós, he is the Order of Maria Theresa was the holder. Thecounter-revolution during Székesfehérvár served and supported the efforts of his brother, his death will retreat from Iaşi County Galway,was the representative authority of the law. [5] [6]
Miklós Horthy in 1901 . , on 22 July Arad married jószáshelyi Purgly Magdalene ( 1881 - 1959 ), John and Purgly Vásárhelyi daughter Helena. Four children: [6]
  1. Magdalena ( 1902 - 1918 ), died young scarlet fever .
  2. Paulette ( in 1903 - one thousand nine hundred and forty ), first knight Fay Laszlo landowners and Count Gyula Károlyi 's wife.
  3. Stephen ( in 1904 - in 1942 ), the MAV machine factory, chief engineer of the MAV 1940-1942 CEO and Deputy Governor for a short time, died in military plane crash in Ukraine . His wifeIlona Gyulai-Edelsheim ( 1918 -), respectively.
  4. Nicholas ( 1907 - 1 993 ), married Maria Consuelo Countess Karolyi ( 1905 - 1976 ). [2]

Childhood and school edit ]

The young Horthy
His childhood on the family estate until the age of eight, Kenderes spent. The family memoirs as lively and adventure-loving child. In his memoirs writes that "[Father] is not a lot of understanding csínytetteim certified as either a vivid imagination and seduced kalandvágyam-out. So it was then, that in spite of his reluctance forgiving my mother when I was eight years old broke away from the warm family circle. Debrecen my brother got two shared accommodation ". [3]
Elementary school in privately conducted Kenderes ( 1,874 - 1876 ), and the Reformed College of Debrecen ( 1876 - 1878 ). Grammar school in Sopron , in the Lahn-educational institutions ( 1878 - one thousand eight hundred eighty-two ) was performed, which was taught in German. Bela brother of Fiumemaritime academy he was a student. Hadapróddá inauguration two months before her death during a military exercise. [3] The family will in defiance of1882 autumn brother Nicholas came on their own initiative to replace the naval academy in Fiume. 612 applicants, only 42 were admitted to the Academy, including Horthy also. The academic rigor of the best characterized to a third of the students dropped out or missed. The Academy of the matrózoktól learned Italian and Croatian as well. [3] In addition, in German , English and French are spoken. 1886 . 7 October inaugurated the Austro-Hungarian Navy II. Class hadapródjává seaman . [3]

Officer's career edit ]

Service of the three-masted, sailing segédgőzgéppel equipped Radetzky frigate began. [7] in 1890 it was already sorhajózászlósként served asConstantinople anchoring Taurus station ship on board. [8] High athlete, being a high profile battle with the local gentry circles. Excellent sailing and successful middle-distance was. Fencing Championship army won. In addition, bicycle racer and tennis is an outstanding performance (doubles champion duo defeated the English army), and first-class rider was. These sports results , good dancing skills , engaging manners, and the language spoken in the corporate circles welcome people's actions. [3] 1892 - 1894 was as a junior officer involved in the Saida East Asia and Pacific, through which the hit India , Australia and Melanesia . [3] On his way admiration filled the British Fleet area: Victoria Queen of England during the reign of (...) freely prevailed proud of saying, Britannia rules the waves, [9] and this journey, several deep impressive examples we have seen. " - wrote in his memoirs. [10] in 1908 and in 1909 was sorhajóhadnagyként the Taurus was the commander. 1,909 and 1,914 between I Francis Joseph, King 's aidewas - in his memoirs stressed the honor commemorated the ruler . 1,914 . 20 January reach Captain rank, which is the land of the army of Colonel met. [11]

During World War II edit ]

The destroyer Csepel while deployed
The First World War broke out in 1914 until Polak berth in 8300 tonnes of Habsburg battleship commander, and one of the most modern fleets in the unity of the newly built Novara cruise skipper was quick. The Kingdom of Italy after the declaration of war the fleet in Italianports against 1915 . ai 23 May attack on the flotilla commander of Novara led Porto Corsini led bombing campaign, and many similar, smaller participated in action. [12]
In 1916 . 9 July in Novara single-handedly sunk two armed British fishing boat and two routed, kimentve the nine survivors. [12] in 1917 . , on 15 May guidance of Novara, in Helgoland and SMS Saida cruisers, as well as the lake and the Csepel destroyers broke through theOtranto closure belt , and 12 steamers sunk. On the way back to the hits of Admiral Alfredo Acton-led Allied squadron ( HMS Dartmouthand Bristol in the UK and Marsala Italian Italian cruisers and five destroyers). In the battle of the Adriatic warfare for the first time artificial fog deployment tried to Novara Group commander, Horthy himself is head and leg injury, but his wounds supply after the stretcher to the bridge had them brought himself from further directed the battle until they lost their consciousness. [12] The multi-hit Novar in Saida took vontába, and only the slow-moving procession of Budapest and the battleship SMS Kaiser Karl VI. , and SMS Sankt Georg armored cruisers led enhance the appearance saved.
After his recovery, in 1918 . February 1, the Prinz Eugen Battleship became commander. The Cattaro matrózlázadás repression (the Sankt Georg Kaiser Karl VI. , and Gaia warships) to the beliefs contrary did not participate. [13] in 1918 . February 27 ellentengernaggyá and more in rank above a Captain and Admiral ahead of the Imperial and Royal Fleet Commander was appointed.
In June 1918 at the head of the fleet again sailed to attack the Otranto lock protection, but - another boat unit manager - St. Stephen's Battleship megtorpedózásának reputation back. 1918thOctober 31 Finally IV. King Charles gave orders to the vessels of the fleet in the Serb-Croat-Slovene National Council , 1 November became a Vice-Admiral. After the collapse Kenderesi retired to his estate. Horthy as tengerésztisztről allied and enemy forces are very high opinion of his officers were more stressed remembrance "championing". [12]

The head of the counter-revolution edit ]

'Karolyi Mihaly view that Hungary's separation from Austria ostentatiously sharpen the takeover after the Hungarian side, a separate armistice concluded wanted, even though Upper Italy for the monarchy of all fighting forces thereto shall have signed the ceasefire, and that's to Hungary's territorial integrity was not affected. Karolyi, this was a fatal step for us.'
- Miklos Horthy: Memoirs
The Soviet Republic at the time of joining the French occupied Szeged ongoing counter-revolutionary organize, Count Gyula Károlyi government of counterrevolutionary became Minister of War. [14]The Board dismissed the Entente pressure, Horthy was left out of the new, Fri Dezso Abraham led ellenkormányból. Instead, in-chief was appointed, which the National Army took the lead (in the units set up in Horthy hadügyminisztersége began before Gömbös Defense Secretary anti-communist officers különítményekből). [15] The Council of the Republic of collapse during 1919 in early August of Archduke Joseph , took over the government, but soon had to say about the officer, as the Entente Powers are not willing to rely on any member of the Habsburg family, political appearances. Miklós Horthy 1919th On 18 August the Allied Military Mission before announced that as soon as it is authorized, within four days of actual military power, and restoring order in Hungary. [16], the troops of the Entente under license from the Transdanubia retired headquarters in Siofok directed to. [ 14] E. Halsey Yates Colonel August 24 st is the first to report that Horthy's armed strength: 8000 soldiers with machine guns and 19 field gun made ​​of force.
The reception at the Prime occupying Budapest Gellertbefore
Horthy declared that Budapest is not responsible for the Friedrich government , despite the government regularly attended meetings. In Transdanubia introduced its own military administration, division commanders, had full power. Hard censorship was introduced, made ​​it impossible for civil administration building efforts and the judiciary intervened. [14] In these circumstances, was, inter alia, Prónay Paul ,Ostenburg Morava Julius and Héjjas Ivan hallmarked white terror , [14] which kegyetlenségeit the Entente representatives also complained (although, contrary opinions and reports have been). [14] The Supreme Command of the actions people's judgment or individual fluctuations are classified as (it is true that command never issued a retaliation). [14] Horthy's memoirs recognizes that crimes have been but afterwards the circumstances, the laws of war holds the world turned out really responsible: "The land freed from hell, no one has ever silenced by an angel with wings fanning" - writes exile in Portugal. [17]
Horthy was well recognized by the chaotic situation only a coherent armed forces represent a real power: George Russell Clerk, British diplomat in the end it was agreed that the Romanian disengagement, the national army to take over control of Budapest. [14] The military regime set up Horthy adoption ban feeding Clerk's mission as a result of 1919 . November 16 , after the Romanian army pillaged the careful supervision departed from Budapest , Horthy costume "crane feather effect" named head of armed forces marched into the capital.His headquarters temporarily settled in Hotel Gellért, the detachments are more developed in its center for themselves. [18]
In 1920 . March 1, pre-negotiation, the National Assembly of Hungary, Miklós Horthy was elected governor (1920th Act II., Act). [19]

The main responsibility of a leader edit ]

Horthy's proclamation to the people of Budapest at the National Army marching
The National Army is prepared to be involved in the ceremony capital. The arrival of news has triggered a minor panic Judaism . They feared that Horthy's troops in Budapest pogroms will take place. Therefore, the Pest Jewish Community delegation dismissed the Supreme Command Headquarters, Siofok. Housing warmly welcomed them. Horthy emphatically assured the delegation that can not afford to settle in Budapest pogrom. [20]
Many believe that the National Army Commander as Horthy responsibility for the detachments kegyetlenkedéseiért [21] - the so-called white terror,some say several hundred, some say more than 1,000 people ( Vilmos Bohm , the Council of the Republic Military Commissar of exaggeration that there are around 5,000 away) [22] estimate for the victim, who alone of the communist atrocities (the Red Terror ) perpetrators, but also the Council of the Republic were sympathetic to ordinary people. In addition, often the Council of the Republic is not related to Jewish persons were victims of retaliation. [23] The main reason for this was that the detachments like to identify the Jews of the Council of the Republic on the grounds that the leaders of the majority and many Communists of Jewish origin. [ 22] The white terror crimes continued even after the invasion of Budapest. TheNational Army members of dealers looted, people were taken away in the open street, quarters detachments who were tortured, many were also killed. Many rapes are committed. [24] "a document that would prove beyond any doubt that Horthy as commander in chief had ordered executions, has still not been found" . [25]
Another suggested that the situation is more complex. In Hungary, the British military and civilian observers supported Horthy activity, in order to finally consolidate the country's position. Sakmyster Thomas historians as temporary governor Horthy making the Allied military mission leader, Colonel Yates in 1919 already recommended the NH headquarters situated in Siofok. Sir George Clerk, the British Foreign Office 1919th in late October - early November to Eastern Europe sent a delegate asked Horthy, if power is to report it and the extreme right and the szélsőballal. [26]Significantly aspect is that the National Army with a newly developed, quite unorganized body was composed of the already chaotic period to act without hindrance, without orders, at their discretion [27] (as shown later in the Ragged Guard Sopron area activity is also demonstrated [28] ).Horthy's command before the invasion of Budapest said: "If we go to Budapest, everyone can keep up, maintain discipline, and my hope is that, despite a warrant does not occur, you will be us ...", but this did not prevent excesses. [29]
It may be noted that the power of the Governor Horthy's election, the Entente and the National Army depended. After the revolutions occurring Hungary Entente's military occupation of the extensive damage caused. The Romanian occupation began the systematic plunder of the country in which the damage is estimated at 1.5 million gold crowns. Among other things, the Hungarian Red Army and the Soviet Republic of liquidation, as well as the White Terror decisive role was played by the Romanian army. It is also a fact that in many cases, Horthy ordered an investigation in order to investigate the murders. [30]

Fővezérből Governor edit ]

Horthy in Budapest marched for eight days in 1919 . Nov. 24 at the Christian Socialist Knight Charles led a new government was formed, which is the backbone of the Christian National Unity Party (CNUP) politicians created, but took part in it as the Christian Farmers' Party , and the Peasant Democratic Nagyatádi Szabo Stephen and Social Karoly Peyer well. This government - theCouncil of the Republic for the first time after the fall - the Entente recognized immediately, and on December 1 called on the Prime Minister to send representatives to the Peace Conference .This was an important step in the consolidation, as the country's international status of Discontinued total uncertainty. Required to stabilize the internal situation in the next two steps of the National Assembly elections and the state was the main issue of settlement.
Regent Horthy puts the oath in the National Assembly 1920th March 1
In the first case, the National Assembly elections were organized in relatively simple. The necessary legal framework has been described in the Friedrich government created the 1919th electoral decree issued in November of that Hungary never before - and then again until 1945 - did not see the democraticbasis. Secret, equal, and mandatory for women including the right to vote, and 24 over 74 per cent of the adult population is spread out. The election in 1920 .Jan. 25 - 26 , Price was announced. The government was committed to the integrity of elections and political parties to operate freely while ensuring. However, the only organized armed forces and their detachments leading Horthy not braked various right-wing organizations in the white terror continued, made ​​it impossible for the Government's intention, therefore, Karoly Peyer January 15 th and left the government of the Social Democratic Party announced that it would not start at the election. In part this was due to the districts close quarters "unanimous" was a choice , that is, only one candidate has started, the proportion of invalid votes was over 10 percent. The Smallholders' Party, and gained a majority in the National Assembly CNUP sure, hardly any of the other party's mandate.
The form of government is concerned, the entire unit of the National Assembly was rejected by all the revolutions linked republic . Unanimous support of the kingdom, however, there was a great division in the IV. Charles supportive Legitimists and opposing free electors of. Most of the former provisional head of state of a Habsburg Archduke had supported the latter, however, the majority of the House of Habsburg wanted a complete break. The Entente and the neighboring countries as a ground war was considered a possible return of Charles, and even temporarily supported the Habsburgs had a head of state selection.
This is further reinforced by the Entente already supported by Horthy's position. He did not want to be a king, because in principle recognized the legitimate demands of the throne of Charlemagne, the temporary office of the Heads of State are very much pleased him, and this is the emphasis on loyalty to Charles eventually gained the support of some of Legitimists. The National Assembly met in February, adopted by the General State law on the exercise of temporal power, which is a moderate Republican Presidents powers similar to that of the future governor. Horthy was displeased with this, and therefore insisted on the nomination of further widening the powers. The formal election in 1920 . March 1 took place, with the last of the detachments was also politically significant by Horthy to be safe in the presence of fegyvereseinek organized by the vote. [31]

The government of edit ]

Miklós Horthy 1931st on August 20 Budapest St. Stephen's Day procession as a participant

Providing the kingdom without a king edit ]

Horthy beginning of IV. King Charles twice returned to Hungary. The IV. Charles returned the first attempt in 1921 . March 26 began, inSwitzerland, settled some noble supporter of King appeared in Szombathely , and began to discuss with Prime Minister Pál Teleki. The international political constellation (uncertainty French support, the surrounding states hostility) and the Hungarian opposition, (Teleki's fallen on suspicion that supported the king's return) finally dissuaded the restaurációról and back to Switzerland to, this time from the frontier, Hartensteinbe . [32 ]
Charles events are not deterred by the fact that the ruling as a legitimate attempt to take back the throne: October 21, has a large support base of knowledge behind him, when the wall Dennis Cziráky estate of landed aircraft. Budapest to train more military units, several leaders of the counter-revolution ( Ostenburg Morava Julius , Baron Antal Lehár , Count Antal Sigray ), as well as local representatives of the Hungarian aristocracy Prince Batthyány Strattmann Laszlo also vowed to lead it. Charles also appointed its own government, led by Stephen Rakovszky large crabs.
Horthy decided that the foreign minister of Czechoslovakia, Edvard Beneš immediate threat of intervention to be taken seriously, so quickly had to report IV. Charlemagne, who had twice sworn allegiance, and who has repeatedly called for the transfer of power. The rulingOstenburg Morava Julius and Anthony Lehar accompanied by troops led by 23 October arrived Budaörs which started the so-called. Budaörs battle . The King Mass celebráltatott the railroad tracks, and then seeing the kivezényelt against student teams and the dead, in order to avoid bloodshed stopped the armed struggle. The next day troops arrived in the provincial capital, and immediately commanded them to Budaörs which surrounded the loyal forces. The king's second return attempt also ended in failure: first, on 25 October Tihany interned on 31 October and his family to the British HMS Glowworm monitor shipped from Madeira Portuguese-owned island. [32] The Entente expectations on 6 November , the National Assembly - the history of Hungary during the third time - said the Habsburg dethronement Hungary (1921st XLVII., Act). [33] The law was not written against the king, Horthy and the ruling as governor announced what is paradoxically a public situation. The actual power relations that are no longer influenced by the Horthy of fully consolidated. [32]
The Governor's powers enlarged several times in the course of time, but the increasingly aging Horthy was never dictatorial said to be total power. [34] Succession of resolve also taken: 1942 kormányzóhelyettessé his eldest son, István Horthy (1942nd Act II., Act) , [35] who died in the same year the Soviet military plane crash scene. After his death, not inaugurated a new deputy governor. [36]

The internal dimension edit ]

After 1920 . March 1, was elected Governor Horthy beginning of Pál Teleki and István Bethlen hallmarked moderate politicians in favor of those who wound up the remains authoritarian detachments, and in 1921 the summer of Head of State Count István Bethlen appointed him as prime minister, and thus contributed to the twenties, the consolidation of . [37]
After selecting Governor Horthy retired from everyday political life. [38] was the first Prime Minister Pál Teleki, who began the consolidation of the situation. The majority of dissolved detachments (often military action within their centers removed them). Nagyatádi Szabo Smallholder agriculture minister announced a land reform. The reform did not affect the large estates, but approximately 2 million people allocated land (1920. XXXV., Act [39] ). This is mostly 1-5 ​​acre estate reported. [37] The country ceded areas in our country fleeing intellectuals tens of thousands of job wished to state [40], so accept her the country's Assembly of the numerus clausus ("closed number") Act, which provides that the minorities only in ethnic goods accordingly could gain admission into higher education institutions (science universities, the Technical University, Budapest University of Economic Sciences Faculty and jogakadémiákra, 1920. XXV., Act § 3). [41] The law, which focuses on Jews hit the Bethlen government in 1928 - was repealed (1928th year XIV., Act). [42] The Communist movement in the state and social order to protect the outlawed (1921st Act III., Act). [43]
Horthy15.jpg
Teleki since 1921 in it failed the first királypuccsba , then also a moderate conservative tendencies represented by István Bethlen became prime minister ( 1921 - 1931 ). [37] to steer the first year of a compromise with the Social Democrats ( Bethlen-Peyer Pact ), so they legally could operate, but cut back on their activities. [44] The Prime Minister's strong pro-government majority in order to create some support in conjunction with the 1922 , he joined the Christian National Unity Party of United Smallholders' Party . [45] This helped establish in 1932 . Oct. 27 until the ruling party-run Christian Christian Farmers- , Smallholders and Civic Party, which briefly united party called. [37]1922 taken in Prime Minister's decree guaranteed EP superiority: the country has restored the open voting, which is manipulated by the elections (1925, Sopron , Székesfehérvár and Baja too) and significantly strengthened the census. [46] The legislation in 1939 to remain in force. [47] in 1922 . September 18, entered our country in the League of Nations , [48] which in 1923 was a large-scale borrowed, which sought to recover up to the Hungarian economy: in 1924 , he rose from the Hungarian National Bank , in 1927 , in a new, stable currency was introduced, the pengo . [49]
The Great Depression result of all that Bethlen built almost ten years, collapsed. In 1929, industrial and agrarian crisis sweeping across the world which is simple gabonakonjunktúrával started, but soon changed to a general crisis of overproduction by the credit crisis and the collapse of the financial world is haunted. In Hungary, this agricultural scissors opening resulted in the loss of the land and the peasants of the day was associated with a decrease in numbers. The decline of heavy industry, operating with discipline, wage cuts and long-term holidays with trying to make inroads. Light industry (especially textiles) suffered less change. Some of the destitute peasantry became among the industrial workers and the unemployment rate has increased dramatically in the work of those working for wages is reduced.The so-called middle class appeared in graduate unemployment .
The economy went bankrupt, broke the single ruling party (the "heirs" with host Minister, John Mayer resigned). Bethlen was obliged to resign, the governor and Gyula Károlyi appointed Prime Minister, who is also a non-significant results, although strict conservation measures have been taken. The new Prime Minister of the assassination Biatorbágy effect introduced martial law . [50] In addition, the global crisis has strengthened extremism as well. 1,931 in Böszörményi Zoltan journalists founded the Hungarian National Socialist Workers' Party , was appointed members kaszáskereszteseknek briefly. In 1932, Zoltan Mesko (formerly single politician) and founded the National Socialist and Farmer-Labor Party . But then political weight was negligible. [51]
The crisis Gömbös dynamism and 95-point National Plan of Work was a way out, [52] so that Horthy's old comrade, fondling the dictatorial ambitions, it is imperative Italian politician has a friendly prime minister ( 1932 - 1936 ). Combos racist history of the Jewish people associated with the views of the public was forced to revise. In financial terms, the even easier job, to 1,932 in the summer of Lausanne in seminar in Hungary reparations obligations were abolished. [52] Combos to strengthen the links sought with Germany and Italy , and in 1934 , he contacted the Soviet Union . The German and Italian economic relations have been successful, however, the Soviet Union is not able to exploit the opportunities related to ideological differences. [53] The economyfascist corporatist model (occupation order) tried to force the system. Also endeavored to the ruling party, Bethlen led more moderate circles oust the országgyűlésből which indicated Imrédy Belaand Miklos Kallay ministers removed as well. 1,935 was reached that the governor disperse the parliament, and the fraud and in terror ( Endrőd volley ) abundant elections tried to push back theFKgP -t, so the seats in 70% of his party obtained the re-formed parliament. [46] Power ambitions and aspirations of all of the workers represented by social as well as artisans and government employees represents a part of the Christian Socialist trade unions rejected. [54] Bethlen However, the scope and kibuktatásával Combos won dislike Horthy, the prime minister is not just sentence from the governor, because the terminally ill, and was in 1936 where he died in it. [55]
Darányi Kalman Government (1 936 - 1938 ), not only the Nazis, but the Hungarian supporters of various Nazi and Nazi movements threat also had to deal with. 1,938 was announced by the Prime Minister of the Army for development of Győr program , which is a billions Pengő sacrificed at the Trianon Peace Treaty stipulated in accordance with the development of small Hungarian army. The plan for 1940 was taken from done, but the Hungarian army remains relatively low level, and low power represented. [56]
Bela Imredy the Daranyi after the Prime Minister ( 1,938 - in 1939 ) - though the existing movements and parties separately from the road - the extreme direction of drift (the "great revolution" to achieve its established Hungarian Life Movement would have expected). [57] The events are anxiously monitoring Teleki, Horthy-Bethlen group eventually in 1939 was dismissed by the German interests in politics, according to Prime Minister. Explanation, it was up to one dédszülője Jewish origin. The irony is that just over Imrédy passed the first anti-Jewish law , a religious basis maximized individual Jewish intellectuals in the number of tracks, and then forwarded on to the second one , which is already out on the basis of the previous tightening measures. [57]

Foreign Policy Edit ]

Horthy III. Italian King Victor Emmanuel of a 1936th 25 November organized military parade.
Horthy - in general and of the Hungarian party - is considered the main foreign policy ambitions of the dictates of the Trianon peace treaty revision was. However, the method can only be tactful pussyfoot and the surrounding ring of hostile states. It is characteristic that even the 1927th October 19 is István Bethlen declared that the time is not acceptable for the fact that the issue of peace in the League of Nations before the revision unsure . In 1929, Lord Rothermere generated by euphoric mood: the government is only willing to correct revisionist claims raised by the international situation .
The case was required to support allies. The neighboring Little Entente states, of course, at all times hostile to Hungary, and since mainly France and Britain towards orientated, a staunch anti-communist Horthy to the Soviet Union is not an option as a partner, only Italy and (in the future) Germany remained potentially support intentioned superpower. Benito Mussolini as the Danube Basin wanted to create Italian sphere of influence, particularly in Austria and Hungary. The Bethlen government in 1927 was tied to the Hungarian-Italian treaty of eternal friendship, 1928 in by thePoles of the same people who were granted Hungary revision support. [48] France and England, the official policy of peace revision total rejection, but both countries also had its adherents from the moment of signing.
In the twenties, the Germans tried to cooperate with the French, but the big global economic crisis in 1933 , coming into power in Nazi took a position against the Treaty of Versailles. The Combos Government has developed the first good relations with Berlin : 1934 in the German market was opened to the Hungarian products. Adolf Hitler declared that only Czechoslovakia against auditing requirements willing to support, and this was not enough of the political elite - it continues to be Italian bond remained significant, even economic interests of the Soviet Union were contacted. [53]
Miklós Horthy XII. Pope Pius .
As international events have proved that Hitler's Germany Italy needs help, it became clear that the activities Combos Third Reich's sphere of influence brought to Hungary. Combos, after the death of the governor ordered Darányi Government to endeavor to distance themselves from the Germans, the British and Italian so ápolgatta relationship. [58]
Adolf Hitler Miklós Horthy.
1938 In August , Adolf Hitler and Horthy Imredy called for an official visit. During the negotiations, Hitler informed them that the imminent attack on Czechoslovakia. He expected the Hungarian party that plays the role of the aggressor, with his head Slovakia entire area offered Hungary for. Horthy unanimously rejected it.[59] The resident Kalman Kanya under Horthy warned Hitler that will spark another world war, which will lose because they do not have a sea power. Hitler then began to yell at him. Horthy warned that it will go, as this is unacceptable in a tone of self-thousand-year state representative against. Hitler calm, respectful tone changed sex, but from then on bore hatred towards the Horthy. [60]
Horthy finally, I sentence you Daranyi because negotiate began Arrow Cross and parliamentary representation had promised them (the goal was to, in order to tame them, but did not achieve an outcome). [61] Béla Imrédy secretary of the end of the time while allied with the German and Italian policy support has become, especially after the First Vienna Award was held under a partial revision of the Highlands . Hungary initiated the revision negotiations, the British Government between Hitler and Mussolini mediated. The revision of the English, the French and the Germans signed unanimously. [62] The search for the position of power here at home Imredy Teleki was replaced as Prime Minister. His time was occupied in the Wehrmacht, the Czech and Moravian regions, independent from Slovakia, the Hungarian army and - taking advantage of the opportunity - occupied the strategic rather than ethnic significance of Transcarpathia . [63]

During the Second World War edit ]

The outbreak of World War II and the situation of Hungarian foreign policy perspective edit ]

Miklós Horthy Although the 1920s and 30s back from the daily politics, [38] the role of the feedback connection area increased again as commander of the Hungarian army. Prime Minister Pál Teleki's government attempted to isolate the German influence: the Second World War broke out refused to Wehrmacht troops passing through on their way to Poland Hungary. In addition, a large number of Polish refugees were allowed into Yugoslavia to. Some of them, however, Hungary remained where mother tongue education opportunity for them. [64] Horthy in agreement with thearmed neutrality of spirit you want politics to the Hungarian armed forces remain in the post-war settlement period. [63] The British against neutrality commitment, and the German occupation resistance. There is a very real chance shows that in 1940 during the money placed in the Hungarian American embassy, ​​you may exile government can be developed. [63] Teleki realized that neither of Jozef Tiso led Slovakia or the Ion Antonescu managed by Romania, no matter way out of the Anschluss of szorultabbá situation becomes more and more, so eternal friendship treaty with Yugoslavia, which had to be anti-German tendency superiority. 1940 , the Soviet Union sought an alliance with Hungary , Romania and in return, which Transylvania was offered to the Hungarian side. However, this is finally the kompromittálódástól fears has not been made. [65] [66] In the same year the Germans of Transylvania regarding tipping the balance in favor: the Second Vienna Award granted partial revision in Hungary for.

Circumstances of the situation in Yugoslavia and the Hungarian point of view edit ]

1941 in Teleki's policy failed permanently: German spring offensive began against Yugoslavia, while Horthy agreed to let the Wehrmacht armies in Hungary. However, because of the eternal friendship treaty is still in force was the British are already unbundled soured the relationship, the government only then launched an attack to the south, the Yugoslav government officially ceased to exist. [63] Teleki it is not worth it: a suicide note leaves behind suicide was on April 3 . The Hungarian troops on 11 April crossed the southern border, and Hungary has acquired Bačka , theRepublic Mura and Drava triangle . The delays in Hitler did not contribute to additional areas of feedback. The Hungarian army of insubordinate, pro-German officers in command (from the German high command's instructions) committed in Novi Sad massacre (the so-called. cold days). [64] The number of victims 3800 was around. [67] The Hungarian government has ordered the guilty to be punished, which when four officers were sentenced to death. However, the Germans were evacuated before the execution took them to Germany, where the SS was given a duty roster. [64] In this context, pointed out that the Yugoslav partisans in 1944 and 1945 and between subsequent ethnic genocide carried out during the period. The Southern Region of genocide during the 40 to 50 thousand (some sources say up to 70-80 thousand) innocent ethnic Hungarian people were executed. Many were tortured and deported to concentration camps, where they died of starvation. 332 thousand German minority eliminated. In addition, the Croatian atrocities were also assessed. The victims' as a war criminal "and indicated the genocide was supported by the state. With reference to the above, in contrast to the Horthy regime even attempted prosecution of the perpetrators. [68]

The Hungarian Engagement and its circumstances edit ]

The fast German success due to the Hungarian leadership - including Horthy t - retired earlier concerns about some of it. The German orders flourish in the Hungarian economy, unemployment is eliminated, so the extremes shown a decline in support at this time. The government expenditure allocated to the United States have been withdrawn. Successor Teleki László Bárdossy became the prime minister ( 1941 - 1942 ). Prime Minister at the time, 1941. June 22, started the Barbarossa reality: the Germans and their allies (Romania, Slovakia, Finland , Italy, and the occupied countries recruited legions) attack against the Soviet Union. On June 26, an unknown majesty marked aircraft bombed Kassa , and attacked a train Rahónál , - the circumstances suggest that the Soviet attack was committed - so Bárdossy Horthy and stated that he enlisted in the armed conflict that considers itself at war with the Soviet Union. [69] The decision was taken to use its large weight that the hypothetical German victory, the Hungarian government had been highly disadvantaged neighbors. Few are aware that the Slovak government in 1941 . June 13, assured HitlerSlovak participation in an armed Soviet Union against the war. This relationship ated as Hungary against the territorial claims of asked for in return. [70] The war has been participating in Romaniaalso territorial claims were the Hungarian state. [69] The Slovak public status of the Hlinka Guard Hungarians against extreme behavior was characterized, in which the Hungarians in Slovakia destruction demanded. Some of them have been in Trianon Hungary was held in the northern areas of need. These posters were put up in the streets ", Miskolc-Vác Poprad all ours! Asia is yours, this land is ours! ... " [71] English hadbalépéssel Hitler did not count, but against the German military leadership considered it necessary. The reason for this was that Hungary's neighboring Soviet Union's eventual assault case (Transcarpathia against) the weak Hungarian forces would have jeopardized the Lemberg area of fighting German forces, sides and back as well. [72] In addition, the rapid success in trusting Hungarian military leadership is also exerted pressure on the government hadbalépés the order. Molotov, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs on 23 June in Moscow provided the Hungarian ambassador to the Soviet Union's peaceful intentions and the support of the Hungarian revisionist ambitions. Horthy in his memoirs argues that Bárdossy these ( Henrik Werth chief of staff's opinion credit given) concealed both the government and the parliament. [73] [74] Bárdossy but népbíróságí trial claimed that the Soviet proposals to Ministers were briefed and Governor. [75]
Hadbalépése Hungary was also in the interests of the neighboring countries, as the participation of Hungarian forces at war with it, which served as collateral to the fact that the Hungarian government will not design a character in the Carpathian Basin irredentist conflict. For that reason the question today is, without markings on the bomber where you belonged Kassa: Soviet planes were lost in this (obviously had no interest in the Soviet Union, Hungary entered the war), or Slovakia, or Romania had any provocation. Whichever it was, and Henrik Werth Bárdossy Laszlo used this casus belli had.
At first, only a small number of forces went to east: the Transcarpathian fast corps front desk after a short occupation tasks assigned to the Ukraine . End of 1941 Moszkvánál broke the German attack power before the Hungarian government immediately retreat began. Bárdossy Laszlo German pressure, the government and the parliament without the consent, [76] On 12 Decemberdeclared war on the United States. [74] In 1942 at the beginning of a whole army ( 2nd Hungarian Army ) against the Soviet Union and the consent To start nationality has taken III. Jewish lawadopted feeding Bardossy deposed. Place Miklos Kallay was ( 1942 - 1 944 ), who could not, back to the Germans made ​​offerings (not in the military nor the economic nature) still carried on foreign supplies (this is mostly loans) in April and 200,000 soldiers and 50,000 forced laborers went to the Don front, where in 1943 the beginning of a catastrophic defeat suffered.
Both Miklos Horthy, the Hungarian politics suffered greatly when the front serving István Horthy Deputy Governor in 1942 . 20th August plane crash. The circumstances of the accident is still not fully clarified: István Horthy anti-Nazi views and British friendship was well known, some believe the accident even Germans could be due to, but it also flew MÁVAG skin is the type of design flaw in the aircraft, poor maneuverability is often caused by an accident.

Negotiations in order to exit from the war edit ]

Horthy ordered Kallay organized secret negotiations with the British in Istanbul . The negotiations, Albert Szent-Györgyi was entrusted, who in 1943 . February 7, arrived in Turkey . The Germans had a more professional intelligence well before it was known in the negotiations fact, however, had a significant role in Edvard Benes , who is in London radio openly talked about the Hungarians béketapogatózási experiment. [77] Hitler demanded the more times Klessheim visitors Horthy to replace its prime minister and tightened against the Jews in treatment. The governor, however, stood beside Kallay. The Jewish prejudice antisemitism proving tried to escape Hitler's deportation of the request. Since Hitler was adamant on this point, so he was forced Horthy's own beliefs according to deny the request. [78]
The war, as it became 1943, lost to the Germans. When summer Italy have jumped (as in the First World War), there was hope that the British and American troops soon reached our country, as the Red Army, [79] - however, the new Italian government and the Allied Command series of failures, delayed by Italy's northern half became a theater of war by the German forces in 1945 to defended. The British are still in the Balkan landing chance of shine to the Hungarian negotiators before, but Stalin because of the resistance that did not materialize. 1944 . February 12 , Horthy Hitler wrote a letter demanding the Hungarian army home release of the Eastern Front. [80]

The situation of the Jews and the German occupation edit ]

Between 1939 and 1941 tens of thousands of refugees from Hungary, Germany and German-occupied Czechoslovakia, Austria, Poland territories. Most of them sheltered in the country, is not done so, however, the fleeing Jews. 1,941 in the summer, the Hungarian authorities an 16-18000 "stateless", "outstanding citizen" Jewish people in Germany -occupied Galicia were deported under inhumane conditions (in cattle wagons, almost all types of care delivery without them). The alleged purpose of "stateless" section occupied by Hungarian troops had migrated to the Ukraine.However, the majority of the deportees in 1941 . At the end of August Kamjanec Pogyilszkij- SS units stationed along and Ukrainian militiamen massacred. 2-3 thousand people could only visszamenekülnie Hungary . The German authorities in opposition to the Hungarian public pressure of further deportations on 8 August, a massacre started three weeks before the shut down. [81][82] This was the Holocaust's first mass murder in which the victim is five digit. [83]
The shift planner Hungary in 1944 . March 19, German troops invaded. (Before Klessheim invited Horthy to negotiate with shut off from the outside world, to prevent, to reject any resistance).Miklos Kallay Prime Minister on 19 March , the country has returned to the occupied governor asked him not to give up. It is argued that [84] the German Nazis serving an immediate transfer of power would be threatened by the Jewish community and the country would have accelerated even further catastrophe. However, after the invasion, the Germans did not Szalasi but wanted Imredy Prime Minister. The pressure resisting Sztojay Horthy appointed. An effective military resistance realistic possibility is not open, the experts say heroic, but it would have been tragic event. For this eventuality, the Germans, while their teams have been ready to Romanian, Slovak, Croatian troops are smaller. This force is not only numerically, but also the equipment capacity is exceeded, the Hungarian troops. [85] Kallay deposed his successor Dome Sztojay was who faithfully served the invaders. [38] Horthy remained governor, but the management part of leadership of the country, appointed Edmund Veesenmayer Imperial sure hands. New forces dismissed the rapidly approaching the eastern front.
The Hungarian authorities in 1941, the first deportations carried out. The Kamenets-Podolsky massacre after 1944 there has been no further deportations. The Jewish people's disenfranchisement and qualified labor deportation took place, however, continue. The NSDAP newspaper, Völkischer Beobachter often formulated mocking criticism against Hungary, kevesellve the country to the Jews imposed restrictions. [86] Yugoslavia and Slovakia to the deportation in 1942 was begun. [87] Romania Ion Antonescu, Marshal refused deportation of the Jews, but the Romanian Army and the Iron Guard, he began his brutal cruelty of genocide. [88] [89] Therefore, approx. 70,000 Jewish refugees from the neighboring countries to Hungary. [90] [91] The German occupation and after, however, are also started by the Jews into ghettos collection, ordered them to wear a yellow star, and then in April, the Hungarian administration responsive to the start of the deportations. [92] 445 July 1944 thousands of citizens were deported, of whom 437,402 people in Auschwitz-Birkenau. [93] The government has not requested any documentation about them. Here should be mentioned that in 1944 . April 10, Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler , two Jewish people escaped from Auschwitz concentration camp . Zsolnába reaching contacted the local Zionist circles. The BratislavaZionist center staff on April 25 and 26, listened to them. This is done based on the so-called Auschwitz Protocol , which provided information about the camp. This was sent to Istanbul , Geneva ,London and Budapest and the Hungarian Jewish Zionist circles Council. One month later deported but I had no idea what awaits them. Vrba and Wetzler concluded that the written record so that they are ignoring these organizations. [94] This was confirmed in the Budapest-born Stein, Ernest Zionist resistance as well. According to him, Rudolf Kasztner Zionist leader Adolf Eichmann, $ 1.5 million deal with Jewish people in 1685 to stimulate (including his family members, friends, writers, artists, rabbis, Zionist leaders). He organized the "Kasztner train" in 1944 . June 30, he leftBudapest and passengers of Bergen-Belsen detour we arrived safely in Switzerland . Stein claims that Kasztner the above agreement between the light refused to transmit the record. [95] [96]Some sources claim that the Jewish Council also withheld the possession of the information, and only the middle of June, after having received the record of the government, church leaders and Horthy as well. [97] According to other sources, however, the middle of May already Horthy and the historic church leaders also reached a record in Hungarian translation. [98] [99] However, the Jews, extermination of the fact of the Hungarian leadership is not the Auschwitz Protocols know, [100] but no later than 1942, could the events. In October 1942, the government has been known among journalists close to the events. [99] on 7 October 1942, the Interior Ministry reported no reports clearly extermination of the Polish Jews. [99] Horthy 1943rd May 7, dated Hitler sent a letter of rough drafts of in the following sentence: "Your Excellency further reproach was that the government of the Jews, extermination, through the conduct did not act in the same depth as happened in Germany, and as the rest of the country is desirable." [ 99]
The Normandy invasion , increased foreign pressure, and - some believe - the Auschwitz Protocol due Horthy end of June, wanted to change the deportations organized Baky Laszlo and Laszlo Endre State Secretary and the Privy Council on 26 June recommended the transports stopped. However, they continued until the governor ordered the loyal military forces - laureate Francis Chief of Staff Colonel [101] led [3] - 1944th on July 6 it did not prevent Baky called " gendarmes coup "of its total Horthy then prohibited the Jews of Budapest deportation. The governor and the Hungarian military action was the only time of the Hitler-occupied Europe, where Germany's allies in a country's regular army was used to rescue the Jews. [102] [103] [104] [105]
In 1944 . 18 July Horthy's initiative, the Hungarian Government has made ​​an offer of yet deported Jewish Hungarians (especially children) abroad evacuation order (especially Palestine and Sweden), as well as international aid agencies in the concentration camps of relief supplies to send encouraged Switzerland Budapest külképviseleténél . The initiative, which also contributed to the Germans surprisingly, failed because the United States and the United Kingdom for political reasons, for a long time and so delayed the decision due to a change in the military situation could not be the end of the promotion. The Yad Vashem , however, that despite the failure to offer Horthy had a significant impact on the Hungarian Jewish rescue operations. [106] [107] [108]

The breakaway attempt and its circumstances edit ]

German King Tiger Panzer in the Buda Castle , the St. George's Square, Griff-operationframework, in October 1944. (In the background,the Archduke Joseph 's palace.)
The governor of the Romanian breakaway ( August 23 ) sparked chaos resign Sztojay (replaced Lakatos was). This will mean a temporary escape from the Budapest crammed nearly a quarter million Jewish citizens. [92] Now it has become apparent that Horthy, the Soviet Union will have to negotiate. Faragho Gabor General prior Ceasefire Commission in Moscow , where he October 8, accepted the conditions (a declaration of war on Germany, retreat in 1937 and border behind), on 15 October and began a breakaway attempt, the governor general order by scanning began, but the Nazi and pro-German officers, the resistance of the whole action had failed. [109] The failure of a major player in that slot puccskísérletről information obtained pursuant to the originally scheduled date of October 20 to 15 moved. Due to time so that the necessary preparation could not be implemented. [110]
The Gestapo in 1944 . October 15, kidnapped Horthy's son, the younger Horthy and Mauthausen and then to Dachau concentration campdelivered. [111] The governor was on October 16, was forced to cancel orders, and to give up, the power Szalasi Francis , the Arrow Cross leader handed over. The next day, together with the Horthy family in Germany Hirschberg interned. [112] Francis Szalasi takeover after these abusive Horthy propaganda posters appeared in the streets, "Miklos Horthy, Hungary zsidóbérenc, treason was governor ...". [113]

After the resignation of edit ]

The German captivity edit ]

The governors family desertion of failed attempts, the Germans had captured, and the Bavarian Weilheim near Hirschberg Castle interned. The barbed-wire enclosed in a SS-century castle guarded by the governor's party sétáikon dog guards escorted. Were not allowed any contact with the outside world, even the Red Cross issued a letter not available. 1,944 as of December their treatment grew worse. The governor and his family virtually starved. In captivity in 1945 . 3 January voluntarily joined the ruling family of the governor's brother, Eugene, Horthy , who was able to sneak into the castle radio, so they had knowledge of the events of the outside world. [114] [115]
1945 March Heinrich Himmler gave the order: as soon as the Allies approached the castle, the political prisoners, including the governor's family should also be performed. This, however, Klein SS oberführer not been implemented due to the resistance of the American troops marched two days before the guards dressed in civilian dispersed. [114] [115]

The American prison edit ]

Horthy U.S. fogságban.ogv
Horthy American newsreel
U.S. troops in 1945 . on May 1, Hirschberg reached the castle, with the former governor Americans were hadifogságába. Horthy in captivityHungarians met and thus received news of the Soviet "liberation" as well. The governor this past fear saw accuracy. More detained prisoner of war camp ( Spa , Wiesbaden , Frankfurt ) under varying circumstances. The Nuremberg trials of witnesses interrogated, even Stalin also refused to bring the accused as a tribunal. Tito demanded the extradition of Yugoslavia in the Novi Sad massacre of, but it did not happen. It is often said by the assumption that Horthy was not fined due to Stalin alone. In truth, however, the only thing is that Stalin was no reason for him to be held accountable for war crimes. On 8 May, the governor learned of his son's survival. In June, wrote a letter to Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister and the British monarch, in which Hungary wished for a more just peace to be achieved, but leaves the Foreign Ministry officials did not provide it to the recipient. Interrogation in 1945 . 28 August began. Matters was not a word in English, but the trials of German officials testified. Later, after the release of the occupied Hungary's imperial vicar, Edmund Veesenmayer be summoned to the trial. [116]

The emigration edit ]

'My thoughts on the Atlantic Coast of staying home with endless shores of the Danube and the Tisza, sweet my country, which is for me the most beautiful countries in the world do not make up for. Here you can see the sea every day, living my vocation as popular original aspect of life and delight in it. Deep sea and endless ... My country of origin is but a deeper love Willow, and more ground in the Hungarian longing that, among the Hungarian people attracted back home!'
- Miklos Horthy: Memoirs
After release of the prisoners of war, Horthy Weilheimben returned to his family live. Cash donations lived scarce - only better support the Vatican granted. In addition to the United States in the last two ambassadors regularly sent packages to the family. Summer of 1948 was part of Hungarian generals received the invitation to come to the Federation of Hungarian Veterans edge - an organization that tried to reach the withdrawal of Soviet troops. Refused to do so on the grounds that promised to refrain from political activity - a written record of any such promises are made.Horthy understood that the life of the active phase has been completed and from then on insisted on the role of private citizens. [117]
Miklós Horthy's tomb Kenderes
Four years he lived in Bavaria , and his wife's deteriorating health due to Salazar's Portugal, moved to Estoril city. John Flournoy Montgomery , former U.S. Ambassador to Hungary in 1949 , he established a foundation to financially support the family. In many Jewish -born persons involved, [118] including Ferenc Chorin younger as well. [119] Portugal, wrote in his memoirs that in 1952 . 20th August to a close. First of Buenos Aires, was published in 1953 in the Hungarian releasedin 1990 , was to be expected. [117] In English and German in addition to French translation ( Mémoires de l'Admiral Horthy, Hachette, Paris, 1954 ), Finnish(Muistelmat, Otava, Helsinki , 1955 ) and in English (The Admiral Horthy's Memoirs, Spellers, New York, 1957), was published memoirs. [120]
The 1956 news Excited at first, but later it changed with the failure of a very good health throughout Horthy. After the suppression of the revolution, apathy fell, although the doctors did not suffer organ trouble, and soon died. [121] Estoril died 1957 in. His will that there can not be supplied to return his body, until the Soviet troops who are not retired from Hungary. 1,993 . September 4, buried again Kenderes, the family and the government are congruent intention of non-state ceremony.[117] [121] [122]

Judgment edit ]

During the government of edit ]

Miklós Horthy opinion - although it was not common in his time - was undoubtedly beneficial for most of the Horthy era. The Council of the Republic against the forces of the "country ambulance" were seen as the "country's own stones" against. [123] Given the relative distance aktuálpolitikától Horthy was easily established across the nation governing seafarers' image. Assessment of the evolution of the role in the revision successes, which is in a peaceful way, the policy to Hungary were returned to the lost, the Hungarian-speaking areas of the majority. [124] In addition, a significant economic development and modernization efforts in this direction influence on public opinion. Although these momentum of the Great Depression of the early 1930s, broke it, but theHorthy regime , we have managed to stabilize the situation. This is mostly caused by the global crisis, poverty was a series of social measures. [125]
More attacks on him and his side, however, the value of the system:
  • First of all, on the Hungarian side of the First World War, after the revolutions of attacks after the collapse of values. The revolutionaries fled abroad, many educated people were looking for a publicist, as part of a strong, often exaggerated criticism had on him. The former Social Democratic elite fueled resentment against him. The Hungarian Social Democrats remained, however, the system compromised the Bethlen-Peyer Pact course.
  • The authoritarian system is slow and unstoppable shift to the right has bourgeois liberals against the feeling of having met himself, for example, Jaszi and Sandor Marai , [126] , however, the Communists attacked both violent methods.
  • Accession to power, he could not bear the royalist elite (Royalist) is not less than: of Catholic higher clergy, the aristocracy and the upper middle part of it, and some military officers and groups associated with them middle classes were held guilty of treason. Indeed Horthy resisted IV. Charles returned experiments, however, these were not the reality of the Entente and the Little Entente resistance, either. A serious lack of social support for this group in the background. [127]
  • The most negative image of the Communist Party, he painted it. Especially Horthy naval history, [128] the white terror events of the Horthy regime and anti-communism were the basis for the attack, but it is often claimed, the Social Democrats' arguments as well. The party worked underground, continuing members were arrested. Vilmos Bohm , the Soviet Republic People's Commissar for Military Affairs also took strong ellenpropagandába. [23]
  • In the 1930s, increasingly proliferated in the second half of the Horthy against right-wing attacks. Just like the Communist Party, the right-wing is trying to discredit the system: the bannedParty of National Will and the Hungarist Party as well. Resignation after the Nazis' traitor 'and' zsidóbérencnek "described as the Horthy to view their propaganda posters proclaimed. [113] The army's pro-German, Nazi affiliation officers circles in 1938 to released "kormányzógyalázás" phenomena, which the governor's family is extensive. [129 ]

International assessment edit ]

Horthy's opinion - the world war hadbalépésig - was favorable in the western states. Accession to power of pro-British mentality is owed, as well as naval history is also positively affected by the operation.
Hitler considered initially positive Horthy's direction, however, Czechoslovakia , and then Poland against aggression participation refusal, after growing antipathy felt by many times the opposite ruling Iran. [60] Horthy was "brigantiknak and clowns have" held the Nazis. [130] Hitler criticized special that Horthy regime is reluctant to take the Jewish laws.
The former Little Entente propagandists also attacked Horthy as the Treaty of Trianon Hungary acquired territories retain sought, which is largely also anti-Hungarian propaganda owed. [131] Hitler's talks are often played out in Hungary and the neighboring countries contradictions: the countries with each other threatening tried to make inroads.

The end of the Second World War until today edit ]

The post-war Marxist historiography copyright and ideologues of their own interest, in accordance with distorted Horthy's reputation. [132] Horthy declared, inter alia, fasisztoidnak, dictatorial and népnyúzónak. [133] The positive Horthy image in order to eliminate merit principle continued its activities in the Hungarian history nadir as shown a. In the 1970-ies, the regime for the period is slightly more accurate Horthy image created by historians. [21] The regime, however, the Hungarian historiography broke the previous approach and is now much more objective Horthy was able to develop. [134] activity, the main elements mostly the same with regard to the views of historians, but many issues are still no agreement between them. Such as the anti-Semitism of their relationship. [135] The Median Public Opinion Research Institute in 1999 's survey showed that the Hungarian population of respondents 9% was Horthy the 3 most positive Hungarian politicians, one of the 41% of the 3 worst one of. [136 ] A 2006 survey conducted in 18% of the respondents tend to be positive, 48% negative rather keep business. The left-wing and liberal voters considered much worse towards the Horthy as jobboldaliaké. [137] The media and Elemér Hankiss survey conducted in late 2007 during the 7th state was found to be best man, Horthy, the Hungarian historical figures one person. [138] Horthy, Hungary's first public art sculpture 2012th on May 13, was inaugurated in Somogy county round Iben . [139] The wooden full-length statue of initiation after a few days of Daniel Peter Budapest lawyer red paint leöntette and deed Facebook profile announced. [140] The statue has since been restored and camera continuously preserved. [141] Elie Wiesel, Nobel Peace Prize winner was born in Transylvania Jewish Holocaust survivors as "Horthy, Regent of Hungary as six hundred thousand Hungarian Jews were responsible for deportation who were transported to Auschwitz. Something terrible mistake that if someone wants to rehabilitate him after that. " [142]

Honours edit ]

Notes and sources edit ]

Notes edit ]

  1. ↑ Bencsik, Gabor. Miklós Horthy , 4 Improved, London: English Mercury, 9 o. ISBN 963 855285 9(2004)
  2. c Genealogy Euweb: but Horthy family Baia Mare . (Access 2009. Jan. 28)
  3. g Bencsik, Gabor. Monarchicus Homo - The first 25 years . London: Rubicon Historical Magazine, 2007/10. No, 54-56. o
  4. ↑ Horthy, Nicholas. Memoirs (Annotated by Andrew L. Simon) . Simon Publications, 11 (Note 3). o.ISBN 096 657343 9 (2000)
  5. ↑ English Biographical Encyclopedia: István Horthy (brother of Nicholas) . (Access 2009. Jan. 28)
  6. b Italy, Louis. Governor of the family . London: Rubicon Historical Magazine, 2007/10. number, 22-35. o
  7. ↑ Czeglédy Gyula Kerepes reburial of the Horthy family / crew prayer.
  8.  The Great Powers to keep some of their ships was near the Turkish coast, diplomatic pressure purposes.
  9.  Britannia rules the waves "(literal translation)
  10. ↑ Memoirs of Admiral Horthy. 18.oldal
  11. ↑ Bencsik Gabor Miklos Horthy (the governor and age), last paragraph
  12. d Broken Meadow 2,001th
  13.  Broken Meadow 1993rd
  14. g L. High 2,001th
  15.  Vonyó 2003rd
  16.  Source: Bandholtz Harry Hill - An Undiplomatic Diary by the American Member of the Inter-Allied Military Mission to Hungary, 1919-1920 ; 1919th August 18 entries ai
  17. ↑ Augustine Balázs savior of Chile's article. The Horthy quote from the middle of the page.
  18.  Gregory Romsics 2003rd
  19. ↑ 1920th Act II. Law Article Netjogtáron
  20.  Peter Gosztonyi Writing (1992) details the Horthy, the Regent c. From documentaries, 00:13:30
  21. b Historical Magazine Rubicon: Miklos Horthy, cult and counter-cult / the Horthy image changes / development of the counter cult-page 12 1951.
  22. b László Karsai study of the Holocaust, the above information mentioned in the First World War, revolutions, ellenforradalmak chapter .
  23. b Historical Magazine Rubicon: Miklos Horthy, cult and counter-cult / the Horthy image changes / bloody murder the sixth page.
  24.  Ablonczy 2004th
  25.  Romsics Ignatius - cult and counter-cult (Rubicon 2007/10)
  26.  Sakmyster 2,001th
  27. ↑ Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica. In the course of national Christian period.
  28. ↑ Rags Hangover statue. Part of the activities of Sopron Ragged Guard website.
  29. ↑ Quoted in nyugat.hu website.
  30. ↑ Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica. The Romanian occupation and the White Terror.
  31.  Romsics Ignatius 2007b
  32. c Ormos 2,001th
  33. ↑ 1921st XLVII. Law Article Netjogtáron
  34.  Szabo 2,001th
  35. ↑ 1942nd Act II. Law Article Netjogtáron
  36.  Romsics Ignatius 2,001th
  37. d Hungary in the twentieth. century. The through consolidation.
  38. c Pritz 2,001th
  39. ↑ 1920th XXXV. Law Article Netjogtáron
  40. ↑ Hungary in the twentieth. században.A migration (migration) (Escape Part One)
  41. ↑ 1920th XXV. Article 3 of the Law § Netjogtáron
  42. ↑ 1928th Act XIV. Law Article Netjogtáron
  43. ↑ 1921st Act III. Law Article Netjogtáron
  44. ↑ The Social Compromise secret: 85 years of the Bethlen-Peyer Pact (Multi-kor.hu).
  45. ↑ Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica.Az years of isolation.
  46. b Parliamentary elections and the political system of the Horthy era.
  47. ↑ Legal restrictions on the will of the political representatives of the Hungarian elections from 1920 to 1947.
  48. b Hungary in the twentieth. century. The foreign policy latitude.
  49. ↑ Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica. Fight for the League of Nations loan.
  50. ↑ Hungary in the twentieth. century. New government - old methods (1931).
  51. ↑ Hungary in the twentieth. century. Changing conditions - changing governments.
  52. b Hungary in the twentieth. century. The Combos Government programs and domestic policies.
  53. b Hungary in the twentieth. century. Great power in the Basin Plans.
  54. ↑ Hungary in the twentieth. century. The 1935th year's election and its consequences.
  55.  Gregory 2,001th
  56.  Ungvary 2,001th
  57. b Sipos 2,001th
  58. ↑ Hungary in the twentieth. European században.Az rearrangement of power relations.
  59. ↑ Hungary in the twentieth. században.Revízió and Foreign Policy (1938-1939).
  60. b John Flournoy Montgomery, Hungary, The Unwilling Satellite.3 Admiral Horthy as Regent's Position.
  61. ↑ Hungary in the twentieth. században.A Darányi government fall.
  62.  It is not true to claim that Hitler and Mussolini brought under one roof for the first Vienna Award.
  63. d Ablonczy 2004/2.
  64. c John Flournoy Montgomery, Hungary, The Unwilling Satellite.9: The Breaking Up of Czechoslovakia.
  65. ↑ John Flournoy Montgomery, Hungary, The Unwilling Satellite.10: The Downfall of Rumania. )
  66. ↑ John Mucsányi: Sixty years ago (Dombrády Lorand, Pritz Szakaly Paul and Alexander) )
  67. ↑ oak Tibor: Blood Vengeance Bácskában.Budapest, Sower, 1991 ( MEK )
  68. ↑ Joseph Kiss: Documents of the Hungarian minority in Vojvodina has about retaliation.
  69. b Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica. Drift towards maelstrom of World War II.
  70. ↑ The (Czech) Slovak Hungarians története.Kronológia.1941. June 13
  71. ↑ Stephen Janek: battle of the Hungarian-Slovak diplomatic relations between 1940-41.
  72. ↑ Perjés G.: Was there an alternative? (Alexander Szakaly Book of Thoughts)
  73. ↑ Meggéppuskázták peace: the bombing of Kassa mystery still living in the article entitled Archaeology portal.
  74. b Ormos, M.: The international balance of power and Hungary, 1941
  75.  Romsics Ignatius. Turning points in English 1920-1989, Budapest: Osiris Press, 135-136. p. ISBN 978 963 276 226 5 (2012)
  76. ↑ John Flournoy Montgomery, Hungary, The Unwilling Satellite.11: Central European Declarations of War.
  77. ↑ Turkish Balint of the Hungarian independence movement, Jewish rescue activities
  78. ↑ "One of the reproaches regarding the fact that Hungary is said too lightly treated the Jews. On this issue, all the pretentious without refer to the fact that at that time I was the first to plead with the Jews destructive behavior against, and has implemented appropriate measures to influence suppression. "(Miklos Horthy to allegations as to whether Hungary will not occur in a strong enough against the Jews) In: Colors Nicholas - Szucs László Miklós Horthy secret documents. Budapest, Kossuth, 1962. P. 392nd
  79. ↑ Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica. Preliminary soundings armistice and the German occupation of the country.
  80. ↑ Anthony Czettler: Miklos Kallay independent German occupation policy and the reasons for
  81. ↑ Podolszkijról Kamenets-site of the Holocaust in Hungary.
  82. ↑ English tragedy in 1944 the House of Terror website.
  83. ↑ http://www.holokausztmagyarorszagon.hu/index.php?section=1&type=content&chapter=2_2_3
  84. ↑ Bálint Török second Study 1944th from March 19
  85. ↑ Valentine Turkish first Study 1944th from March 19
  86. ↑ László Karsai: Hungarian Jews had survived the Holocaust? Old questions, new answers .Kossuth's Free University. (Access 2011. Apr. 26)
  87.  Stephen Janek: Jewish Question in Slovakia In: Rubicon 2008/4 of a fascist puppet state in Slovakia 1938-1945, ISSN 0865-6347, 18-19. p.
  88. ↑ http://www.holokausztmagyarorszagon.hu/index.php?chapter=13_4_1§ion=1&type=content
  89.  Martin Ros: The Third Reich Jackal - Rise and Fall of collaborators 1944-45, English Book Club, Budapest, 2002, ISBN 963-547-603-5 , 44-45. side
  90. ↑ Sulinet: World War II / Curiosities
  91.  Dr. Saint Zoltán Miklós Horthy - A knight ruler and his people, Pallas Antikvárium Ltd., Mount Pearl, 2007, ISBN 978-963-7524-45-5 , 68 p.
  92. b Sakmyster 2001/2
  93. ↑ The Holocaust Memorial Center website.
  94. ↑ The Jewish community: The man who escaped from Auschwitz
  95. ↑ The Independent Eichmann's List: a pact with the devil's article in English.
  96. ↑ The website of the Holocaust in Hungary, Kasztner train.
  97. ↑ The Holocaust in Hungary Website of the deportations stopped.
  98. ↑ László Karsai: Horthy was aware of the plan of killing Jews
  99. d László Karsai: Miklos Horthy (1868 - 1957), Talking, 2007. March
  100. ↑ Peter Sipos: Horthy and German occupation of Hungary, History, 1994/4
  101. ↑ New Life Online: The savior of one of the Jews of Budapest.
  102. ↑ The Holocaust in Hungary Website of the deportations stopped.
  103. ↑ Allen W. Dulles (the OSS Berne bureau chief, 1953-61. the CIA director) sent to his superiors in Washington, 1944. July 29 st, telegram analyze the situation in Hungary, Horthy's report on the transports stopped. Dulles Horthy's directions Baky's coup attempt trigger identified. [1]
  104. ↑ Turkish Valentine: What is the truth-laureate of the operation?
  105. ↑ Horthy selective anti-Semitism - Interview with historian David Turbucz
  106. ↑ Bencsik, Gabor. Miklós Horthy , 4 Improved, London: English Mercury, 261 o. ISBN 963 855285 9(2004)
  107. ↑ Hungary in the mirror of the western world 1938 - 1958, 5th Chapter The Holocaust in Hungary / Randolph Braham: The Politics of Genocide The Holocaust in Hungary . online version
  108. ↑ Shoah Resource Center: Horthy's offer, Yad Vashem Org (2009th as of november 18th) (in English). (Access 2009. Nov. 18)
  109.  Szakaly 2001
  110. ↑ Maria Ormos: The amok - Regime-nazi National Socialist style into Hungary in 1944.
  111. ↑ The Holocaust in Hungary.
  112.  Historical Magazine Rubicon: Miklos Horthy, cult and counter-cult / the governor's family / Miklós Horthy Purgly 23.oldal Magdalene.
  113. b Erwin Ban: Power Exchange, 1944. from October's writing.
  114. b Bencsik Gábor Miklós Horthy - The governor and early English publisher of Mercury, 2002ISBN 85 528 5 9 nine hundred sixty-three 275th side
  115. b István Horthy Horthy by the Gestapo captivity
  116.  Bencsik Gábor Miklós Horthy - The governor and early English publisher of Mercury, 2002 ISBN 85 528 5 9 nine hundred and sixty-three 276-279. side
  117. c Bencsik Gábor Miklós Horthy - The governor and early English publisher of Mercury, two thousand and two nine hundred and sixty-three ISBN 85 528 5 9 280-282. side
  118. ↑ The vitézirend website.
  119. ↑ Francis Chorin portrait of the Holocaust in Hungary on the website.
  120. ↑ Western Literature English Dictionary Bibliography And
  121. b Miklós Horthy Company
  122. ↑ Antall Minister Parliamentary Opposition (1991st 12 November)
  123.  Rubicon Historical Magazine / The Horthy image changes / Country Life 6th side
  124.  Rubicon Historical Magazine / The Horthy image changes / Hongyarapító 10th side
  125. ↑ Hungary in the twentieth. century. In the shadow of World War II.
  126.  Sandor Marai: Diary (1943-1944) 292nd page, "And yet the ultimate responsibility Horthy and his men, who were allowed to grow in the spirit tenyészni, inexorable fate which it occurred."
  127.  Historical Magazine Rubicon: The Horthy image changes
  128.  Main voiced their argument that Horthy was involved in the 1918 's communist Cattaro matrózlázadás suppression (decimation), proved to be false.
  129. ↑ Maria Ormos, Flag and History (Questions of the Horthy era), Historical Review, 1997, 2
  130. ↑ Maria Ormos: The murder and lies (Csurgó voice) (thoughts of National Socialism)
  131. ↑ 85 years formed the Little Entente. In the past, when Stephen Nemeth Article: Europe 1300-1945 plans. based on a study.
  132. ↑ "The Arrow rémuralomhoz in the suppression of the destruction of the 1944th 15 October, after Hungary took place, but that the details in this juthatott primarily Horthy's fascist counter-revolutionary system the responsibility " ( New Hungarian lexicon  III. (G-J). Ed. Berei Andor et al. London: Routledge. 1,960 ..
  133. ↑ "What he learned, the average Hungarian at the time? He learned that the Horthy regime restoration, fascist, fascist and semi-fascist, authoritarian, militaristic, nationalistic, selfish, népnyúzó, jealous of power, the last satellite, and so on. And especially: a counter-revolutionary. Now they hear and read: conservative, autocratic, authoritarian, autocratic, national, self-centered, dynamic, modernizing, abandoned, cheated, etc.. " (Ormos Mary, Signal and History (Questions of the Horthy era), Historical Review, 1997, 2 [2]
  134.  Historical Magazine Rubicon: Miklos Horthy, cult and counter-cult. 2007/10. number
  135. ↑ The governor 139 years. Right at: worst governor paragraph.
  136. ↑ The Median Public Opinion and Market Research Survey 1999.
  137. ↑ The Median Public Opinion and Market Research Institute 2006 survey.
  138. ↑ Online World Economy: Szechenyi for President! - the best statesmen of the audience,
  139. ↑ http://szegedma.hu/hir/szeged/2012/05/horthy-miklos-szobrot-avattak-kerekiben.html
  140. ↑ http://www.facebook.com/peter.daniel.167?sk=wall
  141. ↑ http://mno.hu/ahirtvhirei/kameraval-orzik-a-horthy-szobrot-1082745
  142. ↑ anxiety, watching the events in Hungary Elie Wiesel

Sources edit ]

  • (Ablonczy 2004) : Balázs Ablonczy, the head of the country (1920-1921) = Rubicon, 2004, 2, 23-26.
  • (Ablonczy 2004/2) : Balázs Ablonczy Back to politics (1938-1941) = Rubicon, 2004, 2, 55-61.
  • (Bencsik 2007/10) : Gabor Bencsik, Homo Monarchicus: The first 25 years = Rubicon, 2007, 10, 54-56.
  • (Broken Meadow 1993) : Broken Meadow Charles, Horthy, the sailor, Budapest, Zrínyi, 1993.
  • (Broken Meadow 2001) : Broken Meadow Charles, a gallant sailor = Rubicon, 2001, 1-2, 14-18.
  • (Gregory 2001) : Gregory Eugene, the leader and the chief (Horthy and Combos) = Rubicon, 2001, 1-2, 29-32.
  • (Nagy, L. 2001) by L. Zsuzsanna Nagy, the chief = Rubicon, 2001, 1-2, 19-22.
  • (Italian Louis 2007) : Italian Louis, Governor of the family = Rubicon, 2007, 10, 22-35.
  • (Ormos, 2001) : Mária Ormos, governor or king? (Miklós Horthy and IV. Karoly 1921) = Rubicon, 2001, 1-2, 23-31.
  • (Pritz 2001) : Paul Pritz, and Edmund Veesenmayer Miklós Horthy (Hungarian-German relations after March 1944) = Rubicon, 2001, 1-2, 59-63.
  • (Gregory Romsics 2003) : Romsics Gregory, two invasion of Budapest (Miklós Horthy and IV. Charlemagne) = Rubicon, 2003, 7-8, 4-14.
  • (Ignatius Romsics 2001) : Romsics Ignatius, the balance of an era (the Horthy's Hungary for two decades) = Rubicon, 2001, 1-2, 44-51.
  • (Ignatius Romsics 2007) : Romsics Ignatius, the picture changes Horthy = Rubicon, 2007, 10, 6-17.
  • (Romsics Ignatius 2007b) : Romsics Ignatius (főszerk.), History of Hungary , Academic Press, 2007
  • (Szakaly 2001) : Szakaly Alexander, the Supreme Warlord, Rubicon, 2001, 1-2, 37-39.
  • (Sakmyster 2001/2) : Thomas Sakmyster, Horthy and the Holocaust, Rubicon, 2001, 1-2, 64-70.
  • (Sakmyster 2004) by Thomas Sakmyster, Admiral, a white horse, Helicon, 2001.
  • (Sipos, 2001) : Peter Sipos, Imrédy Béla Budapest, Elektra, 2001.
  • (Szabo 2001) : Istvan Szabo, the interim head of state power Settlement (1920-1944) = Rubicon, 2001, 1-2, 52-58.
  • (Ungvary 2001) : Ungvary Krisztián The PASSPORT = War Chronicle, 2001, 10, 197-200.
  • (Vonyó 2003) : Vonyó Joseph, "do you want to be Prime Minister or Leader?" (Contemporary Gyula Gombos) = Rubicon, 2003, 7-8, 52-65.
  • Bandholtz, Harry Hill. diary is not a diplomatic style - Romanian occupation of Hungary . Hungarian World K (1993). ISBN 963-7815-50-3

References edit ]

Primary sources edit ]

  • Miklós Horthy, Memoirs, eds. László Antal, Budapest, Europe, 1993 (Extra English), ISBN 963075570X - 3, revised edition.
  • Documents in the light of Miklós Horthy, eds. Mon Eva Haraszti, Budapest, Balassa, 1993, ISBN 963787335X .
  • Miklós Horthy's secret papers, ed., Hungarian. and lists. Laszlo Szucs, Budapest, Hungarian National Archives, Kossuth Publishing House, 1972.
  • Brave Baia Mare Miklós Horthy life in pictures, sel. and together. Vuray George, Budapest, Factor, 1993, ISBN 9638512512 .
  • John Flournoy Montgomery, The Unwilling Satellite , New York, The Devin-Adair Company, 1947, ISBN 1-931313-57-1
  • The Danube: Hungarian 20 century (1918-2000), Encyclopaedia Hungarica 09th Humana , Humana Encyclopedia Club, Budapest, 2001.
  • Hungary in the twentieth. century , Babits Publisher, Eger, 1996-2000

The works of history between 1945-1989 edit ]

  • Kerekes István Horthy's "National Christian and" in Hungary, Budapest, Plan Printing, 1961.
  • Stephen Pinter, who was Miklós Horthy (biography), Budapest, Zrínyi, 1968.
  • Nicholas Colour - Laszlo Szucs: Miklós Horthy secret documents. Budapest, Kossuth Publishing House, 1962.
  • Zoltan Vas, Horthy, Budapest, Literature, 1977, ISBN 963150798X - 3 ed.,
before, "Her Majesty's aide-de" is published.

Hungarian émigré literature Edit ]

  • Gosztonyi Peter Nicholas von Horthy (Admiral und Reichsverweser), Göttingen, Zurich, Frankfurt, Musterschmidt, 1973.

Literature was born after 1989 edit ]

  • Janos Balint Stephen eds. and epilogue, the Brave Baia Mare Miklós Horthy, Budapest, brave Office, 2001, ISBN 9630061902 - produced a "Miklos Horthy" (Budapest, Singer and Wolfner, 1939) c. ed. basis.
  • Bencsik Gabor Miklos Horthy (the governor and age), Budapest, M. Mercury, 2003, ISBN 9638552859 - 3, rev. ed.
  • Saint Zoltán Miklós Horthy, a knight ruler and his people , Pallas Antikvárium Ltd., 2007, ISBN 9789637524455
  • Bush Imre Vitez Baia Mare Miklós Horthy, Budapest, Szenci Molnar Company, 2002 (the Company Herman national policy series, 17), ISBN 9632500539 .
  • Wine Susanna, Parliament, political parties, elections in the former Horthy's Hungary, I , Cipher Publisher 2002
  • Wine Susanna, former Parliamentary debates of the Horthy In Hungary I-II. , Cipher Press, 2006
  • Susanna Wine - Daniel Szabo, parliamentarism in Hungary 1867-1944 , Eötvös Publishing, 2008
  • Gosztonyi Peter, The Regent, Admiral Horthy (and emigration), Budapest, Daisy, 1992, ISBN 9637673059 - 2nd, rev. and Ext. ed.
  • Gyurgyák John, "Judaism in the Horthy era," in The Jewish Question in Hungary , p 110-208., Budapest, Osiris, 2001, ISBN 9633890276
  • Gabor Koltai: Horthy, the Regent. Outdoor Ltd., 2007. ISBN 978-963-87061-5-7 .
  • Stephen Nemeskürty: Farewell glance. The Kingdom of Hungary 1920-1944 and Governor, Outdoor, Budapest, 1995.
  • Thomas Sakmyster, Admiral white horse (Miklós Horthy, 1918-1944), trans. Romsics Gregory, Budapest, Helicon, 2001 (Helicon universities, history of science), ISBN 9632087003 .
  • György Sándor, Horthy, Kádár (similarities and differences), Budapest, Budapest-Print, 2004, ISBN 9636951578 .
  • John Sebok: The secret deal - Jews for independence, and the myth of the Holocaust Horthy, Copyright edition, 2004. ISBN 9632167147
    (Mária Ormos Historians) [4] .)
  • Miklós Horthy, cult and counter-cult , Rubicon Historical Magazine, 2007/10. number.

International literature edit ]

  • Dreisziger Nandor F. eds., Hungary in the Age of Total War (1938-1948), New York, Columbia University Press, 1998 (East European Monographs, 509), ISBN 088033407X - sokszerzős study book.
  • Thomas Sakmyster, Miklós Horthy of Hungary and the Jews = Labyrinth of Nationalism, Complexities of Diplomacy (Essays in Honor of Charles and Barbara Jelavich), ed. Richard Frucht, Columbus, O. Slavica, 1992, 121-142, ISBN 0893572330 .
  • Thomas Sakmyster, Hungary's Admiral on Horseback: Miklos Horthy, 1918-1944, New York, Columbia University Press, 1994 (East European Monographs, 396), ISBN 088033293X .
  • Thomas Sakmyster, Admiral, a white horse , Budapest, Helicon Publishing, 2001 (Helicon universitas), ISBN 963-208-700-3
  • John Flournoy Montgomery, The Unwilling Satellite , New York, The Devin-Adair Company, 1947, ISBN 1-931313-57-1 [5] [6] [7]

Available from Internet Literature edit ]

External links edit ]

WIKIQUOTE-logo.svg
The Hungarian WikiquoteQuotations are further
Commons
The Wikimedia Commonscontains Miklós Horthy themed media files.

Predecessor: Zoltan Szabo
Minister of Defense
in 1919 . May 31 - 1919 .Jul. 12
then as chief until August 15
Hungary Shield Insignia Army v2.svg
Successor: Ferenc Schnetzer

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